The African Forum and Network on Debt and Development (AFRODAD) in collaboration with its partner organization, Tanzania Coalition on Debt and Development (TCDD) together organised a one-day convening on the 15th August 2022 to launch the African Conference on Debt and Development (AfCoDD 2022) in Tanzania. The AfCoDD 2022 took effect in Dar es Salaam and brought together leaders from among the political, religious, technical, civil society, government and multilateral stakeholders ‘leaders. The participants discussed and agreed on commitments that safeguard macroeconomic sustainability of the African continent towards achieving a ‘New Debt movement’, and outlook on issues of domestic resource mobilization and international development finance mechanisms in Tanzania and the African continent towards the structural transformation in Agenda 2063.
The purpose of AfCoDD2022 is consistent with pillar 3 that focuses on public mobilisation of national civic movement building in a sustained manner beyond the current debt crisis. The pillar is anchored on the African Borrowing Charter as a commitment to actively participate in national debt dialogues, calling for greater transparency, accountability, and governance on public debt matters. It therefore builds the foundation for the launch of the African Day for Debt Action (ADDA) to be held on the eve of the annual African Union (AU) Finance Ministers Meetings.
The workshop objective was to strengthen transparency, accountability, and governance on Debt Management.
- CONFERENCE EXECUTION
The conference execution was guided by expert presentations of topical papers covering number of public debt management issues including the Russian/Ukraine war and its effects on economies and particularly Tanzania public debt management, the impact of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) in Tanzania including accountability mechanisms. The other topical papers presented and discussed by experts included the Overview of Public Debt Management in Tanzania including debt of Parastatals and Local Authorities, Climate Change and its impact on Public Debt, the Role of PPPs in Infrastructural Development and its implications on public debt, and Ways to improve transparency and accountability systems in public finance management.
The workshop that started with opening remarks was held in the Peacock Hotel conference room in Dar es Salaam. A chronology of events that trended with the conference is as summarized below.
- Official opening
The opening was officiated by Dr. Camillus Kassala on behalf of the TCDD chairperson, Mr. Peter Maduki. In the remarks, Dr. Camillus Kassala commended participants for turning up to the conference, TCDD and AFRODAD for organizing the conference and experts for accepting to present topical papers. TCDD mandate of mobilizing and engaging stakeholders in advocacy for public debt management was rightly underpinned. That as pro-poor civil society organization, TCCD contributes immensely in shaping Tanzania’s public debt management through capacity building, advocacy and lobbying approaches. Moreover, Dr. Kassala applauded TCCD efforts of campaigning for Tanzania’s sustainable foreign and domestic debt management by collaborating with civil society organizations to monitor government policies.
- Conference methodology and participation
The conference methodology was that of interactive presentations to set agenda and discussions involving expert discussants to digest substantive issues of knowledge and information followed by plenary discussion. Thirty eight (38) participants among men, women, youth and middle-aged participants representing the public, private and civil society sectors, as well as multilateral institutions took part in the conference. A list of participants appears in Annexure“1”of this Report.
- Conference presentations
The conference was constituted by expert presentations dutifully delivered by resource persons as summarized hereunder.
- Russian – Ukraine war – its effects on economies and its effects on debt management in Tanzania
The presentation shed light on the impact of Russia-Ukraine war to African economies, Tanzania inclusive. Noted was a fact that in the 1970s Tanzania led frontline countries to successfully fight and eradicate colonialism and apartheid in Africa.
Further elaborated that political scientists, economists, sociologists or other professionals may look into, and analyse wars phenomenally differently. War is referred to as escalation of a conflict relating to political, social or economic interest. States are keen to avoid wars and embrace peace knowingly because losing a war means nation’s compromise of identity. Economically, wars cause poverty to people because during wars the quality and quantity of social services delivery [to citizens]is affected causing food and energy insecurity in the world. Poor people are even more directly affected by wars because of correlative dwindling purchasing power that hampers the poor to maintain market basket.
The Russia-Ukraine war is affecting Africa and Tanzania in particular because of brazen globalization, which apparently leaves no country in economic isolation. Precisely, Tanzania is politically, socially and economically connected to the international community in the other parts of the world. A daunting globalization has sometimes victimized the truth so only little information filters through the global policy kitchens. The AfCoDD is one of the venues designed by civil society to help global policy kitchen to vent the truth about how the poor is affected by imperialist wars amongst others. Unfortunately, other than online western mainstream and social media skewed narratives orchestrating the Russia-Ukraine war or adverts of super brand weaponry, independent literature about the war is insufficiently available. So the truth about and therefore effects the Russia-Ukraine war might not be known yet, but the victim.
However, it is not hard to assess the extent to which agrarian economy, food and energy security in Tanzania and Africa at large have suffered from the Russia-Ukraine war. The banking industry in Tanzania and Africa at large is likewise suffering from impact of the war’s strong bearing on international trade – export and import trade payment and business volume. Africa’s economies are fragile and dependent on international economies, calling for evaluation of African economies thinking and design that focus on the best solutions for dealing with debts during such disturbing situations as the Russia-Ukraine war. TCDD and stakeholders advocacy for government compliance with economic governance virtues of transparency, participation and accountability around management of public debts indeed considered as necessary push. What should be the role of CSOs to the effect?
- Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) – Impact of SDRs in Tanzania including accountability mechanisms on such SDRs
This presentation intended to expose participants to conceptual and operative issues of public debt financing through the SDRs mechanism. The SDR is phenomenally the International Monetary Fund (IMF) lending and fiduciary tool.
The International Monetary Fund defines the Special Drawing Rights as supplementary foreign exchange reserve assets defined and maintained. SDRs are units of account for the IMF, and not a currency per se. SDRs represent a claim to currency held by IMF member countries for which they may be exchanged. SDRs are essentially used for balancing external payment accounts/balance of payment and therefore stabilizing the economy.
Historically, the primary currency reserves were kept in gold until World War Two (WWII). A meeting of representatives of 44 countries at the Bretton Woods in 1944, resolved formation of the IMF and World Bank (WB) to manage the global economy whereby IMF was assigned to deal with global level monetary policy (balance of trade) while the WB had to deal with post WWII reconstruction and development. In 1969, IMF created the international monetary reserve currency (SDR). As of now, the SDR basket comprises of the five currencies that are issued by IMF member countries, or by monetary unions that include IMF members, with largest value of exports of goods and services during the 5-year period ending 12 months before the effective date of the revision. Currently the SDR basket currencies are US dollar, UK Pound, Chinese Renminbi (RMB), Japanese Yen and Euro. The table below shows percentage weight of the currencies in the SDR basket.
Table: Percentage weight of currencies in the SDR basket
IMF allocates SDR to members based on the proportions members’ quotas. The more shares that the IMF member has, the more it pays into the IMF, which comes with greater voting power, the more SDR quota it has. This allocation means a costless, unconditional international reserve asset for the members, and no interest earned or paid on it. Only in the case SDR holdings of a member increase above its allocation, interest is earned on the excess, If fewer SDR is held than allocated, the members pay interest on this shortfall.
The IMF and several other international organizations use SDRs as a unit of account. A few countries peg their currencies against SDRs, SDRs can be used in transactions with the IMF, for example, use of DRRs for the repayment of loans or payment of the reserve asset portion of quota increases. Noting that SDRs were originally created to replace gold and silver in large international transactions and provide a cost-free alternative to member states for building reserves, SDRs are credits that nations with balance of trade surpluses can draw upon from nations with balance of trade deficit.
- Overview of Public Debt Management in Tanzania including debt of Parastatals and Local Authorities
The main objectives of public debt management in Tanzania are stated in the Government Loans, Guarantees and Grants Act (CAP 134). These are primary and secondary objectives.
a) The primary debt management objective include ensuring the government’s financing needs and payment obligations are met at the lowest possible cost consistent with a prudent degree of risk.
b) The secondary debt management objective is to support development of domestic financial markets and to ensure Debt sustainability.
Tanzania has a legal framework for raising government loans, issuing guarantees and receiving
grants, which is spelt out in tandem with section 3, 6, 13 and 15 of the Act that empowers the minister responsible for finance to raise foreign and local loans, issuing guarantees and acceptance grants on behalf of the government. It further authorizes the minister responsible for finance (Section 30 and in Regulation 2 of the Act) to delegate his powers to any senior officials to negotiate and sign loans/grants agreement. Finally, the legal framework, according to section 30 (A), outlaws activities of executing a loan without approval of the minister.
The institutional framework for management of public debt in Tanzania involves four key institutional levels, namely (i) the Ministry of Finance and Planning;(ii) the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; (iii) the Bank of Tanzania; and (iv) the Attorney General’s Chambers. This framework also involves relevant institutions including the sectoral ministries, Parastatal Organizations (POs) and private business firms at appropriate stages of loan cycle.
The managerial structure of debt in Tanzania involves two committees established under section 16 and 19 of the Government, Loans, Guarantees and Grants Act. The committees analyse, advise, and coordinate all issues related to loans, guarantees, debt management, and acceptance of grants by the government. These committees are the National Debt Management Committee (NDMC), and the Technical Debt Management Committee (TDMC). The key functions of NDMC include advising the minister on matters relating to external and domestic borrowing, issuance of government guarantees and acceptance of grants on behalf of Government. The other functions are to monitor the implementation of annual Debt Strategy and borrowing plan, and advising the government on measures to be taken against any person for noncompliance of the provisions of the Act
The National Debt Management Committee is required by law to meet quarterly or any time as may be advised by the Technical Debt Management Committee. The NDMC is composed of the Permanent Secretaries of the Treasury, who chairs the Committee meetings, Zanzibar finance ministry, Zanzibar Planning Commission, Prime Minister’s Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation and Office of the Vice President. Other Committee members include the Attorney General, Governor of the Central Bank, Accountant General, Zanzibar Attorney General and Zanzibar Accountant General.
The TDMC is established under section 19 of the Act and bestows powers of TDMC chair to the Commissioner for Debt Management in the Ministry of Finance. Other members of the Technical Debt Management Committee are the heads of departmental units involved in debt management from respective institutions and are required to meet on a monthly basis except for extra ordinary meetings. The main duty of TDMC is to provide technical advice to the NDMC.
- Climate Change and its impact on Public Debt
There is warming strips showing temperature rise in Tanzania – over 0.6 °C warming in the last 5 years alone. In many parts of the country, the temperature has increased by over 1 °C since the 1960s.
Climate Change affects Tanzania on multiple levels; threatening life and livelihoods. Climate change endangers sustainable development and human rights in Tanzania. If Tanzania communities have not built sufficient climate change resilient and adapted to the effect, potential livelihoods loss will be inescapable. A report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) points to partly reaching the limits of adaptation, meaning Tanzania is experiencing irreversible loss and damage. These are losses of life, livestock, culture andthe economy suffering from infrastructure damage.
Tanzania experiences serious impacts of climate-induced extreme weather. Floods and extreme rainfall are a threat to life and infrastructure causing loss of life and economic impacts. Tanzania urgently need finances for climate action. Climate Action is necessary to close the exciting gap. Closing the mitigation gap limits the overall warming and threats caused by it. The adaptation gap has to be closed to achieve maximum climate resilience hence resist unavoidable climate impacts such as extreme weather and sea level rise. In addition, Loss and Damage has to be addressed. Financing a just recovery and rebuilding from climate impacts.
Economic losses due to climate change have increasingly profiled much higher during the last two decades among the climate change Vulnerable Twenty (V20) countries Group notably because of slow adaptation to climate change. Between the years, 2000 and 2019 V20 economies recorded the loss of US $ 525 Billion counted on GDP per capita reduction on a regular basis.
Africa needs more than USD 2.8 Trillion just to implement the National Determined Contribution (NDC). The need for finance is high. Developing countries can‘t carry the burden alone. The Paris Agreement states clearly that the burden should be shared fairly. Tanzania needs significant international support to raise between 20-25 USD Billion for executing climate change mitigation and adaptation financing. National Determined Contribution (NDC) requires 19.2 USD billion while National Climate Change Response Strategy (NCCRS) requires USD 500 Million.
Only a small part of the provided climate change finance is grant-based. The majority of climate finance — 61% (USD 384 billion) — was raised as debt, of which 12% (USD 47 billion) was low-cost or concessional debt. Only a few of climate finance is a local adaptation. Finance for adaptation increased by 53% reaching USD 46 billion in 2019/2020 compared to USD 30 billion in 2017/2018. Despite this positive trend, total adaptation finance remains far below the scale necessary to respond to existing and future climate change. UNEP’s Adaptation Gap Report (UNEP, 2021) estimates that annual adaptation costs in developing economies will be in the range of USD 155 to USD 330 billion by 2030. Even little money is not mobilized yet to address the losses and damages. The finance gap for climate change adaptation and addressing loss and damage is urgent whereas the highly debt-based financing mechanism is criticized for challenges and shortcomings.
Overall, the gap of climate change finance is wide and clearly discernible. Climate finance flows are nowhere near estimated needs, conservatively estimated at USD 4.5 – 5 trillion annually. To achieve the transition to a sustainable, net zero emissions and resilient world during this decade, climate investment must increase drastically.
In East Africa, climate financing is aligned with climate adaptation through agriculture and forestry sectors. Infrastructure sectors such as energy and transport have not mobilized sufficient resources. This leaves the region highly exposed to serious climate change impact whereby lower middle income countries like Tanzania climate adaptation financing is subjected to low-cost project debt instead of grants. The Tanzania NDC exemplifies how complex mobilization of climate finance is whereby multiple funds and stakeholders are tagged as source of finance. The national debts are growing in line with weather and climate extreme events, which mean Tanzania, will find it difficult to rebuild when hit by disasters such as floods or droughts. The country may sink deeper into public debt abyss when responding to crisis.
- The Role of PPPs in Infrastructure Development and its implications on public debt
PPP is generally defined as “long-term contract between a public party and a private party, for the development and/or management of a public asset or service, in which the private agent bears significant risk and management responsibility through the life of the contract, and remuneration is significantly linked to performance, and/or the demand or use of the asset or service”.
Because of long term nature, PPP ensures optimal risk transfer and responsibilities to the private party over a significant part of the life of the infrastructure asset. The contract between parties spells out the way a private party bears significant management responsibility and risks through the life of the contract”. This happens because the private party is materially and integrally in charge of life-cycle cost management, rather than being dedicated to minor areas of outfit management.
PPP relationship with debt management is such that the PPP-related debt is recorded in the debt of public authorities depending on whether the debt is referred to the national accounts or government accounting. The PPP-related debt is included in public debt if there is public authority considered owner of the asset determined by wide-range of criteria. This is mostly the case in government-pay PPPs, but usually not in user-pay PPPs (concessions).
In government (both central and local) accounting, the debt associated with government-pay PPPs is always included in public debt, but not the debt of user-pay PPPs. The principle is to consider as “debt” any kind of long-term financial commitment of a public authority.
Rating agencies usually consider debt associated with government-pay PPPs as equivalent to public debt whose launch and preparation requires conducting a financial sustainability study submitted to the ministry in charge of budget for opinion.
- Ways to improve transparency and accountability systems in public finance management
Public Finance Management (PFM) refers to all the processes that govern the budget cycle including, budget formulation, debating and approval; budget execution; and budget oversight and control. PFM examines the set of laws, processes, rules and systems that the government employs in mobilizing revenue (both internally and externally), allocation of the mobilized revenues, spending of the revenue as well as accounting for the same.
Public Finance Management is mandatory, hinged on a notion that financial resources are scarce therefore require efficient and effective management by government institutions. Apparently, there are other reasons underlying need for watertight PFM. Improving fiscal discipline and ensuring a balance between revenue and expenditure as well as achieving operational efficiency and ensure that public resources are allocated according to agreed priorities signify having PFM measures in place. Putting PFM measures in place helps to sanction deviation and improve accountability required to guarantee qualitative and quantitative provision of development and social services, including poverty reduction, to the population.
However, there are challenges facing PFM in Tanzania, which include controlled access to budgetary information that in turn limits public participation in the budget process. Fiscal unpredictability that causes under collection of government revenues and unexpected delays and sometimes non-disbursement of approved budgets leading to failure to implement development projects is another challenge facing PFM in Tanzania.
Another challenge is persistent discrepancies between budgeted and actual expenditures that undermine budget credibility. This challenge is symbolic to weak expenditure management, involving nugatory expenditure, transfer of funds lacking accountability, overpayments and payments without authentic documentation, inadequately supported, or lacking receipts.
Noncompliance with the public procurement laws, regulations, and internal audit gaps, with instances of non-establishment of internal audits units due to insufficient resources, or unapproved audit plans are but some of the challenges facing PFM in Tanzania.
As way of recommendation, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning should be agile enough to address the PFM gaps.
- Major Discussions
The discussion design was such that respective presentations were followed by expert discussions to digest key expert issues prior to plenary discussion.
- The key issues raised by discussants following the presentation on the Russian – Ukraine war- its effects on economies and its effects on debt management in Tanzania included opacity surrounding the war because the media supporting either side of the war are doing their best to demonize their foe. Therefore, the key facts, truths and realities associated with the war are not filtering out. Speculations are largely at play that perhaps, contending political economy issues have triggered the Russia-Ukraine whereby the agenda is hidden, crisscrossing ideological difference fighting to control world politics and resources.
Arms trade and weaponry economics is another area of speculation for the Russia-Ukraine war because the latter has created opportunity for massive military ware technology testing, expansion and hi-tech arms export to the warring parties. However, Africa and Tanzania in particular are on the receiving end of the war paying the cost of war through food insecurity, hiked commodity prices and inflation that have enormous drawback effect to GDP. Energy and food prices in Tanzania have skyrocketed, which calls reassessment of Tanzania’s self-reliance ideology as way of reducing importation of commodities (fuel and wheat).
The Russia-Ukraine war has practically affected Tanzania’s economy. Examination of Bank of Tanzania’s (BOT)’s monthly economic report for July, the national debt has increased to $38.142B, with 72.6% being external debt. The external debt appropriated by transport and communication sector is leading with 22.3% followed by social welfare and education with 17.4%, while the energy and mining sectors spent 16.3%. Most of foreign assistance being aid or external debt is directed to those sectors. Russia being the world’s leading producer and supplier of oil, wheat and fertilizers while Ukraine being the world’s largest producer and supplier of maize, wheat and sunflower the war between the duo implies disrupted commodity supply chain with inflationary effects to Africa and Tanzania.
- The issues raised and discussed pursuant to Special Drawing Rights – Impact of SDRs in Tanzania including accountability mechanisms on such SDRs included exposé that despite SDR being the ordinary term among BWI experts it was unknown to many Tanzanians even among CSOs leaders and activists. That was food for thought for TCCD to consider, through training and capacity building, popularising the terminology together with other related technical concepts and notions applicable to ‘public debt industry’. Theoretical understanding of key issues and concepts would unlock CSOs engagement potential to know the rules of the game circumventing public debt management operations.
Whereas IMF determines members’ SDR holding (asset) or allocation (liability) based on certain economic and social development indicators, Tanzania citizens do not have correct information about their country’s current SDR status. Had the citizens known the criteria and status for Tanzania SDR allocation at IMF no one would be fooled to believe that the latest allocation of 591.75 million USD (equivalent of 397.8 SDR) credit to relieve the country’s COVID 19 economic shock was the personal effort of the President of United Republic. It time Tanzania citizens get correct information and knowledge so they know indicators and criteria that IMF uses to evaluate, peg and allocate SDR to Tanzania.
- The issues raised and discussed pursuant to a presentation on Overview of Public Debt Management in Tanzania including debt of Parastatals and Local Authorities focused on lack of practical information from the Government concerning public debt management. Key information about procurement of public debt starting, followed by public debate of the reasons for borrowing then committing the country and procure public debt should have been available. As for now, the practice of public debt procurement is restricted to designated government officials.
Public borrowing requires such in-built check and balance mechanism enforced through multi-stakeholder arrangement in which participation of civil society in mandatory. The NDMC and TDMC are mere necessary institutional, not sufficient political governance condition for public debt management. With adequate scrutiny imposed on public debt management, commercial borrowing would be a last resort option or avoided altogether.
- The issues raised and discussed pursuant to a presentation on Climate Change and its impact on Public Debt focused on policy deficit regarding climate change in Tanzania. That apart from the guide provided under the national environmental management policy and legislation Tanzania does not have coherent policy guide required to accommodate and direct climate change aspects.
It is as if the government conceives climate change in the context of relevant projects foreign funding or lack of it. This mind-set must change especially when government budget allocation to climate change operations and activities is insignificant. During parliamentary budget sessions it becomes obvious that funding of climate component is relegated to foreign funding contributing to 70% while our Government budget contributes paltry although expert papers indicate 60% of the country’s economy is said to be affected by climate change.
Nevertheless, NGOs are doing a good job, yet closer working relationship and cooperation with government is required for attaining great achievement in climate change adaptation.
- The issues raised and discussed pursuant to a presentation on The Role of PPPs in Infrastructural Development and its implications on public debt largely delved into management of PPP contracts, professionalism and threat of corruption. Human capital investment in PPP contract management was seen as national strategic choice for smooth design and administration of especially government –pay PPP designed and implemented in the infrastructure sector. There are studies showing a good number of Government officials failing to manage PPP projects modelled along with the legislation. These and similar failures have direct bearing on public debt burden to the people.
PPP is one of the good systems that may contribute to faster development but it hides public debt in the backyard. A public debt entered openly and directly is comparatively better managed than entering into an invisible debt shadowed by PPP. It is imperative to conduct rigorous PPP appraisals noting many PPPs last up to 30 years.
- The issues raised and discussed pursuant to a presentation on Ways to improve transparency and accountability systems in public finance management were finite and constructive. PFM operations worsening performance was highlighted by underscoring CAG reports showing bugs every year. The need for PFM compliance with good governance virtues of transparency and accountability as way of containing corruption in the public sector were emphasized. The wonder was a question on how financial mismanagement would find inroad in the era of prevailing computer-based specialised financial management software helping to verify accuracy of financial records and information in the government institutions. Credited as potential partner supporting experts and civil society raising voice to promote good governance of PFM or abhor corruption the media were recognized as playing key role to improve PFM performance in the country.
- Plenary discussion followed expert interventions during which participants pointed out their views on pertinent issues including highlights on effect of Russia-Ukraine war on the global energy, food and fertilizer supply chain also affecting Africa as well as Tanzania. That because of inflexible governance structures and policy environment Africa and particularly Tanzania policy response has taken snail speed despite daunting inflation and commodity scarcity.
The war protagonists ‘rhetoric and zeal pointing to change the world economic order policy environment should not be ignored or taken for granted by Africa but rather the latter prepares to respond with flexible governance hardware and software.
Debt management requires a lot of transparency and accountability but our legal and regulatory framework is inflexible to changes. Tanzania government has lately introduced subsidy to energy as way of response to the Russia-Ukraine war impact to the economy. However, except by invoking policy logic to establish bearing of subsidy to public debt management, there is no transparency or information in the public domain to allow scrutiny. So far, even the media are not aware of subsidy details paid to fuel dealers so the public access information regarding the entities receiving and how much subsidies are allocated and provided.
Ukraine and Russia are the giant exporters of fertilizers, cereals and manufacturing raw materials, so Tanzania and Africa at large should brace for the impact of war to the economies.
International traders have sometimes practiced hedging as way of stabilizing commodity and capital prices, it is not clear if this practice is working in Tanzania.
Climate change is largely caused by countries that have huge manufacturing industry, which indeed largely benefit immensely from wealth creation and ownership, then going forward, and given the economic principle of polluter pays, the world should unite to force polluting countries proportionately contribute more of the cost towards redressing climate change. To that end, climate change challenges should look inward homemade solution rather than foreign funding.
We lack capacity, experience and capacity building in our PPP systems, PPP is a quick system in taking progressive development steps.
Optimal performance of PPP that contributes to reducing public debt demands that Tanzania adheres to rigorous oversight and governance institutions that comply with transparency, accountability and participation of citizens to PPP contraction linear programming. Citizens’ representatives should be allowed to monitor PPP in a fashion similar to the EITI MSG oversight arrangement.
People, but specifically civil society organisations, should stand firmly to demand transparency and access to pertinent governance information as way of ensuring either PPP or PFM comply with good governance standards. CSOs are duty bound to identify gaps in the laws with which to engage relevant authorities.
- CONFERENCE FINAL STATEMENT
The conference wound-up with participant’s adopting statement reflecting AfCoDD conclusion-cum-collective position as narrated herein below.
- The Government should through policy and strategy resolve to make Tanzania a self-reliant state.
- Tanzania should assume the leadership mobilizing Africa for economic liberation of the continent.
- The government of Tanzania should devise a designate policy for supporting indigenous entrepreneurial class to invest in modern agrarian enterprises and agribusinesses to ensure safeguard of food security, sustainable employment and national stability.
- The government should put relevant policy and institutions in place that are flexible enough to respond to national disasters.
- Tanzania should consider pioneering a campaign for global peace diplomacy using ambassadors placed in different parts of the world to disseminate the campaign message.
- Tanzania should mobilize all AU presidents to adhere to the ideals Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)
- Most Tanzanians have little knowledge or awareness about economic policy literature and issues. NGOs and CSOs should take a leading role to produce and disseminate relevant literature materials about the subject matter to various social groups in the communities.
- The alarm of climate change is threatening food security, public health and the economy. To that end, the cost for climate change adaptation response;
- Should be proportionately contributed by global polluters while citizens in the countries on the receiving end raising their voices to the effect.
- The nations affected by impact of climate change should claim compensation from the massively polluting countries.
- Tanzania government should formulate the climate change relevant policy replete with consequential implementation legislation, regulations, strategies, programs and projects whose implementation should adequately involve citizens.
- Tanzanian citizens should be mobilized to participate in the implementation of climate change adaptation projects, such as tree planting and rescinding from deforestation, which do not need foreign funding.
- The social accountability mechanisms should be put in place to monitor proper spending of climate change adaptation project funds, detect fraud as way of successfully containing climate change effects.
- CSOs and NGOs should engage the government as way of ensuring formulation and execution of policies for climate change adaptation and self-reliance realized.
- Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) should devise ways and means of helping to mobilize their congregations to addressing the impact of climate change in the economy and environment.
- A multi-stakeholder institutional arrangement should be established for scrutiny and monitoring of public debt management.
- The government should impose controls for prudent and plausible spending of public money as way of building trust required to justify public borrowing decisions and attitude.